I’ve been reading HTML & CSS: Design and Build Websites, my textbook for my COSC 155 class. I went ahead and noted everything that I didn’t know or had forgotten about basic HTML and web design:
- Screen readers aren’t just for the blind or visually impaired! As hands-free becomes more and more common, screen reading markup becomes more and more useful. Imagine going for a jog while reading your favorite blogs or Twitter feeds in a rich, natural voice. That can and probably will soon be a reality. Services like Umano (a free app that streams to you news read by a pleasing voice) grow popular. Hopefully improving text-to-speech technology will make this a reality! So mark up your content in an aurally-friendly way!
- Anchor tags link to an id: Don’t use <h1><a name="oyster">Fresh Oysters</a> to mark up where the destination is. Instead just use: <h1 id="oyster">Fresh Oysters</h1> … I don’t know how I missed that.
- Paragraph tags have a lang attribute. <p lang="en-us">
- Difference between semantic and structural markup. Semantic involves working with the content directly, such as <em>, <blockquote>, and <strong>. It must be placed inside content areas to make sense.. Structural markup involves controlling the rest of the markup, controlling the structure, layout and order of the page, and separating and sorting.
- <blockquote> and <q> tags have a cite attribute to describe where materials are from.
- <cite> and <def> are used to mark a cited work, and define a unique or unusual term (piece of jargon, academic term, etc), respectively.
- <dl>, <dt> and <dd> — I just rarely used these and forgot about them.
- According to the author of this book, you should put a nested list inside of the outer <li> tag. I’ve been just placing the nested list in a <ul> which is siblings with the <li> tags. See figure to right.
- If the first char in a relative path is a forward slash, the relative path will start out at the site’s home directory.
- The <figure> and <figcaption> tags are new to me.
- The <thead>, <tbody> and <tfoot> tags: I was never really in a position to use these. They could be great for long spreadsheets, in order to easily style a heading and footer row (provide the lines between values and sums) without providing any semantic markup.
Next I’ll be moving into forms, audio and video, which I’ll probably have a lot of new or forgotten material to write about!